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The paper argues that the Richard Swedberg’s distinction between the types of knowledge taken as the basis for various conceptualizations of economic life has important programmatic implications for economic sociology. This distinction highlights the different ways in which economic models of exchange conceptualize society, and draws attention to the fact that economic activities have an inherently material dimension. Based on this, the paper argues that a main avenue of research in economic sociology should be the investigation of the material arrangements on which exchange processes are grafted.